Defining sales roles has a direct connection to the sales compensation plan. When identifying those roles, consider six dimensions. A sales role (channel or job) is comprised of multiple factors that make it effective, yet can stretch its capabilities to a point that either maximizes or limits its effectiveness. The factors below must be considered when structuring and managing sales roles. You can use these to define sales roles pretty specifically down to what you will need for the organization and for the compensation plan.
- Sales Strategy Responsibility
This dimension defines the type of customers the organization is targeting. Is the company retaining current customers? Is it penetrating current customers through either product penetration (selling more of the same products) or buyer penetration (getting additional buyers)? Is it pursuing customer acquisition? This combination of possibilities provides overall direction for the job.
- Product Responsibility
This dimension describes the products, services, and offers the job will bring to market. Does the rep sell one product, multiple products, or the whole portfolio? The more products each rep is asked to represent, the more his bandwidth is stretched. A product specialist, for example, should be focused and narrow. A rep selling the whole portfolio may need some overlay specialists for support, especially if it’s a complex offering.
- Market Segment and Channel Responsibility
For reps working directly with customers, this dimension identifies the groups and characteristics of those customers. Market segments can be defined as simply major accounts, key accounts, middle market accounts, and core accounts; or they might be defined by customers, values, or needs. Market segments may also be described vertically, such as healthcare or transportation, or a combination of these variables.
Channel responsibility refers to coverage and management of third party channels. An organization might use distributors, resellers, referral partners, or other types of third party businesses to help get to customers. In that case, it will usually use a role that works with its channel partners. In fact, it may need two roles: a channel acquisition role (someone to go out and acquire those relationships) and a channel management role (somebody to manage, cultivate and develop those relationships).
- Sales Process Responsibility
This dimension refers to the breadth of the sales process the job will span. The sales process may be expansive covering lead generation, qualification, solution design, proposal development, deal closing, and even implementation.
If you ask a sales person to do all of those things – going from lead generation all the way through the close and the implementation – it stretches his bandwidth. That requires a broad set of skills, as compared to having some jobs that are lead generators or maybe – odd concept – marketing generating an abundance of leads. One role may pick up qualified leads, close them, and turn them over to an implementation specialist. Many organizations over-simplify what’s really required in the sales process.
- Marketing, Technical, and Operations Responsibilities
Some jobs will have dual responsibilities, performing disparate functions. Some jobs are contaminated with other operations roles and have been cobbled together over time. Moving non-selling roles to other functions out of sales can help clean up the sales job and increase its effectiveness.
- Management Responsibility
This dimension identifies roles the job may have in managing other people in addition to selling. The classic jobs affected by management responsibilities are the selling sales manager and the selling branch manager. These combination roles often appear in organizations with emerging management levels. Having a seller straddle both sales and management is sometimes a first step toward pure management jobs that allows the organization to still attach a unique quota to the job and align its cost with a revenue stream. The reality is sharing a dual selling and management role can create conflicting priorities. A pure management role, effectively defined and staffed, can provide a much greater revenue impact through leadership and development of multiple sellers.
The big concept concerning sales roles dimensions is that the more a job is asked to do, the more stretched it gets, the less effective the job becomes. This customer coverage discipline of job definition is important to understand to make the organization more effective and to have a solid foundation for the compensation program. Once you decide which breeds of dogs your organization needs and clarify their priorities, it’s time to begin compensation plan design.
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